Wednesday, August 27, 2008
“When old people died without wills or heirs, as happened rather often, the landlord would set the belongings of the deceased out on the sidewalk, since that was cheaper than hiring a removal van. We would go through the boxes and help ourselves, and come upon photographs and books and curiosities, evidence of lives and passions spent in the political and social turmoil of 1910 and 1920, of the Mexican Border War and Emma Goldman’s Mother Earth and Vaudeville and labor-union struggles and the shipping trade; we might be briefly diverted, but we were much more interested in the boxes on the next stoop that contained someone’s considerably more recent record collection.” [Afterward, page 369. Low Life: Lures & Snares of Old New York, Luc Santé, Farrar Straus Giroux, New York (2003)]
reading this in santé’s book reminded me of the many times i happened upon physical milestones of peoples’ lives being “brought to the curb” in the east village during the late 80s and early 90s. santé was correct in that my friends were usually interested in record albums. when we found collections at the curb containing numerous 12-inch dance singles from the 1970s, a collective shudder would be experienced as we were undoubtedly looking at the effects of a brother lost to aids.
on one occasion, i found a wonderfully fat volume by a william f. mcdonald in the curbed belongings of an individual on st. mark’s place in the late 1980s. titled “federal relief administration and the arts: the origins and administrative history of the arts projects of the works progress administration” and published by the ohio state university press, this epic book published in 1969 chronicled the idealism—beset by conflict from the benighted—of economic progress inherent in new deal programs. the assumptions of the programs described in mcdonald’s book were that artists, no less than manual workers, are entitled to employment in their crafts at public expense and that the arts—no less than business, agriculture, and labor—are and should be the immediate concern of the ideal commonwealth.
on another occasion, in the summer of 1989, i was with british guy named edward from richmond-surrey and a comrade from act up. as santé describes, book, photos, and other memorabilia were strewn about the garbage cans for a building on second avenue—already picked over by passersby. my fellow actup’er tore apart the pile looking for art books, his passion. i, on the other hand, was intrigued by the piles of books bearing the “international publishers” and “new world paperbacks” imprints—the imprints of the communist party usa. among the books were biographies of cpusa v.i.p.’s such as peter cacchione, eugene dennis, and elizabeth gurley flynn.
this was a saturday evening and i hadn’t brought a backpack. since i’d planned to be out all night, it was with care that i passed up all the available photos, leftist publications, and books in order to pick one thing to take with me from this convergence. what i decided to bring with me was a large “coffee table” book published in 1965 by the dietz verlag berlin—in the former german democratic republic (east germany). “120 jahre deutsche arbeiter bewegung in bilden und dokumenten” (120 years of the german workers’ movement in photographs and documents) by the museum für deutsche geschichte (museum for german history) was humorously incomplete collection of photographs and milestones of the german left.
“humorous” is the operative word in this fascinating book that has some striking co-optations and omissions owing to the slavish devotion of east germany to the soviet line. considering the title of the book, august bebel (1840-1913) and wilhelm liebknecht (1826-1900) the founders of the sozialdemokratische partei deutschlands (or the spd, from which the german communist party—or kpd—emerged) are, of course included. bebel is well known for his quote that “anti-semitism is the socialism of fools.” not surprisingly, the leftist icons and martyrs karl liebknecht (1871-1919) and rosa luxemburg (1870-1919) are also included in this photo-packed tome. the two spartacist leaguers (a breakaway of the spd that became the kpd), founders of the kpd, and founders and publishers of the kpd newspaper “die rote fahne ("the red flag") were kidnapped, tortured, and murdered by right-wing thugs on january 15, 1919.
clara zetkin (1857-1933) would have to be included. after all, it was her image that appeared on the east german 10 mark note. this noted feminist (as opposed to rosa luxemburg who abhorred dealing with “women’s issues”) served as a kpd member of the reichstag from 1920 to 1933 and interviewed lenin on "the women's question." in 1920 zetkin served on the kpd’s central committee, on the executive committee of the communist international (comintern), as the president of the german left-wing aid group rote hilfe, and in august 1932—due to her seniority—as the chairwoman of the reichstag.
what would a history authorized by the former east germany be without ernst thälmann (1886-1944), the slavish stalinist who led the kpd during much of the weimar republic? described by zetkin as "uninformed and not educated in theory," and caught in "uncritical self-deception and self-infatuation [which] borders on megalomania," thälmann and the kpd fought the spd as their main political enemy—acting according to the comintern policy that declared their fellow leftists as “social fascists.” thälmann, who was shot in buchenwald on hitler’s orders after being held in solitary confinement for 11 years, was the perpetual candidate of the kpd for the german presidency against paul von hindenburg and hitler. thus, the ridiculous and cynical efforts of the antifaschistische aktion/rote einheitsfront are so extolled in this book. i hope for their sakes that the editors of the book were able to keep a straight face in their offices deep in the bowels of the stasi.
it is no surprise that criminal german communist politicians—and former leaders of east germany—such as walter ulbricht (1893-1973) and erich honecker (1912-1994) would be highlighted. during the last gasps of the weimar republic, ulbricht urged his fellow communists to murder police officers and—reprehensively—he met with berlin’s nazi gauleiter joseph goebbels to plan a general strike. (strikers were so appalled by nazis and communists marching together that the strike was called off after five days.) ulbricht helped decimate the legions of german communists exiled in the soviet union through his treachery and denunciations, which led to their deaths in the purges. stalin’s hatch-man lavrenty beria commented that ulbricht was “the greatest idiot he’d ever seen.” then there’s honecker, who—as state secretary for security matters—was in charge of building the berlin wall and responsible for scores meeting their deaths as they tried to escape the police state.
the bogus 1946 “union” of the spd and the kpd—accomplished by stalinist terror in the soviet sector—is covered with great “fanfare.” socialists (spd) in the eastern precincts were browbeaten and threatened by the soviet secret police to fold their party [with the communists (kpd)] into the socialistischen einheitspartei deutschlands (or the sed, which was to become the political rubric in the communist dictatorship of east germany). thus, otto grotewahl (1894-1964) finds his place in this history. grotewahl, the spd leader in the eastern zone, was blackmailed by soviet authorities into leading his fellow spd’ers into the arms of the communists led by wilhelm pieck (1876-1960), the first and only president of the “german democratic republic.” (to his credit, grotewahl publicly condemned the abuses of east germany’s “legal system” and its vicious executioner “justice minister” hilde benjamin—the sister-in-law of the great german intellectual walter benjamin.)
only because marxist historian franz mehring mehring (1846-1919) had been dead for decades could he be included in this book—largely on his laurels of being a spartacist with those who would later go on to form the german communist party. how could käthe kollwitz (1867-1945) not be included? her painting, printmaking, and sculptures—ground in naturalism, allayed in expressionism—bespoke the searing humanity in germany’s collective unconscious. castigating the forces of poverty, hunger, and war, her truly progressive and humanitarian work was exploited by the nazis as well as the stalinists. persona non grata in nazi germany, heinrich mann (1871-1950) works attacked authoritarian and militaristic strains in german society. while his ashes were taken to east germany (he died in santa monica, california), he and his writing would have been anathema in the “people’s democracy” of east germany. the prescient, though naïve, leftist novelist and playwright lion feuchtwanger (1884-1958) also died in california. designated by the nazis as “enemy of the state number one,” it is no surprise that he is included in this “history of the german workers’ movement.” his work, such as “moskau 1937,” could range toward appallingly myopic stalinist apologia.
how interesting that the nonviolent and heroic anti-nazi weiße rose group is included and exploited! how they would have abhorred the “german democratic republic” and all it stood for! had sophie scholl, hans scholl, alex schmorell, willi graf, and christoph probst survived the nazi era, they might well have found themselves being tried in the courtroom of hilde benjamin—the roland freisler of east germany. also amusing is how the headlines of the socialist daily “vorwärts” (published daily in berlin by the spd from 1891 to 1933) are included. this august leftist newspaper—which would publish articles by trotsky, but never by lenin—would have found itself banned in east germany.
it is to his credit that the brilliant leftist theoretician karl kautsky (1854-1938) could never be included in this moscow-leaning “history.” kautsky, the editor of the fourth volume of marx’s “das capital, ”was castigated by lenin as a renegade. in his 1934 work, “marxism and bolshevism: democracy and dictatorship,” kautsky rightly saw that the “workers’ paradise” of the soviet union—that willy-nilly enslaved its people—wasn’t any better than the czarist dictatorship that preceded it. a true pillar of the german workers’ movement, eduard bernstein (1850-1932) could never be included in this airbrushed “history” either. of all the 19th century’s socialist theoreticians, it is the work of bernstein (albeit with various blips and glitches) that has managed to remain relevant to this very day. he refuted marx’s predictions and pointed out that capitalist infrastructural centralization, while significant, was not wholesale. bernstein’s analysis especially pointed out flaws in marx’s “labor theory of value.” bernstein held that socialism would be achieved through capitalism, not through capitalism's destruction, believing that as rights were gradually won by workers, their cause for grievance would be diminished.
appallingly, though not surprisingly, the kpd’s communications czar willi münzenberg (1889-1940) never makes it onto the pages of this book. expelled by the communist party on trumped up charges, the brilliant münzenberg was betrayed by his downright mediocre and thuggish comrade ulbricht (who coveted münzenberg’s position). known for his saying, "all news is lies and all propaganda is disguised as news," münzenberg was found murdered by a soviet assassination squad in france (where he had been making anti-nazi broadcasts). ernst reuter—the brave socialist lord mayor (oberbürgermeister) of berlin who stood down the soviets during their criminal 1948-1949 blockade of berlin—should receive accolades for never being mentioned in this “history of the german worker.” although a favorite of lenin, reuter had been expelled by the kpd in 1922. accolades should also be received by louise dorothea schroeder (1887-1957) who served as mayor of west berlin after the war—and the only woman ever to have served as mayor in berlin to this very day. an spd politician who suffered nazi surveillance during the third reich, schroeder was the first female member of the reichstag and a leader of the arbeiterwohlfahrt (workers welfare agency). john hertzfield’s (1891-1968) work is shown in the book, yet not credited in the text . hertzfield’s brilliant photomontages on the pages of the kpd newspaper “die rote fahne” and its weekly magazine “aiz” (arbeiter-illustriert-zeitung) satirized the german right, german industrialists, and the nazis.
the book still gives me the hardyharhars! like airbrushed kremlin photographs omitting out-of-favor politburo members, this book exemplifies the self-serving—if erratic—nature of soviet policy, whether at home or in its vassal “people’s democracies.” i’m grateful to that deceased cpusa’er for the book and this total “find”—in a situation so well described by santé in the opening quote.
Thursday, August 14, 2008
[“jeff the bastard” (2008), vinyl, variable dimensions. “democratic anarchists in disarray” (2008), screenprints. “death to the new” (2008), florescent paint, vinyl, variable dimensions. “brian” (2008), porcelain bust, paint, feathers, rhinestone collar. “roy” (2008), plaster bust, paint, gold leaf.]
once meaningful totems—if sinister for many—have become commodities. we need look only to the ubiquitous (and stylized) images of ernesto ‘che’ guevara that adorn countless t-shirts, posters, and other ephemera. artist scott king has bluntly knocked the stuffing out of such assumptive and presumptive phenomena in his show at bortolami gallery “the trial continues.” from the respective glam-rammed busts of vladimir ilyich lenin and karl marx to a joy division-inspired dot litany, king’s perspective has been playfully subversive—and inspired by various musical milieu. glam rock, punk, and disco swirl forth in a barbara kruger kind of way to undercut the post-modernist consumerism that has wreaked its own havoc upon political convictions and their various boundaries.
scott king, an artist and graphic designer from yorkshire, england, previously served in such capacities as the art director for magazines i-d and sleazenation. he has also designed record sleeves for the pet shop boys, morrissey, suicide, and roisin murphy (among others). brazenly—if sadly—king has harnessed the strong pulse of cynicism toward the ability of political action (particularly by the left). the perceived impotence and ineptitude of political aggregates to make any meaningful changes (in a world in which the actions of britney spears and paris hilton are actually considered newsworthy) are convulsive in king’s works represented in “the trial continues.”
while the economy and environment are in a shambles, why is it that the parasitic and inane media can actually waste its efforts chasing down john edwards about an irrelevant affair? haven’t we learned the lesson of the atrocious waste committed by parasite ken starr during the 1990s? who cares about someone’s carnal life while housing, medical, food, and energy costs rise? king’s images ask more important questions—not who or what we vote for, but rather how to cause an affray of words and images that raise the stakes of contemporary “confusion.” viral aesthetics of the parasitic govern king’s work: he uses the organs of the host to bring it down by its own means.
scott king: the trial continues
through august 22, 2008 bortolami gallery
510 west 25th street, nyc 10001
Saturday, August 09, 2008
[“bertolt brecht” (1931) by ringl+pit, silver print]
installed by curator phil taylor, this summer offering by robert mann gallery examines formal repetitions (or “refrains”) and parallel motifs of photographers in the portraiture and commercial still life genres during the first half of the 20th century. exhibited as if they were notes on a musical score, the primarily modernist works by berenice abbott, ellen auerbach, ilse bing, carlotta corpron, hazel larsen archer, dora maar, barbara morgan, ringl+pit, and margaret watkins coalesce into an inspiring survey from a hectic and periclean age—and blur the lines between figuration and abstraction.
in its creative ingenuity and entrepreneurial acumen, work produced by the advertising studio of ringl+pit is representative of the exhibition. derived from their childhood nicknames, grete stern (ringl) and ellen auerbach (pit) chose the studio title to deliberately obscure what their own names revealed: their gender and jewish background—qualities they assumed would inhibit the success of their business. such portraits as those of bertolt brecht (1931), ringl with glasses (1929), and mrs. h (1934) exhibit this same playfulness. having met in 1929 while students of walter peterhans—the bauhaus school’s first photography professor—the work of stern and auerbach used humor and irony to subvert traditional images of women in mainstream advertising during a time of social liberation, expanding mass media, economic upheaval, and political change. (with the nazi takeover, ringl+pit closed and the two fled germany—ellen to new york and grete to buenos aires.)
the work of berenice abbott captured the players in this electrifying milieu. her portraits of jean cocteau (1927) and james joyce (1926) are emblematic of the modernist cauldron in which she found herself. sculptor thelma wood, painter marsden hartley, dancer harriet marsden, and an innovative litany including djuna barnes, aleister crowley, william plomer, paul bowles, aaron copland, christopher isherwood, stephen spender, w.h. auden, and beatrix and john lehman inhabited the terrain in which she lived and worked.
“self-portrait with record lying down” (1930) exhibits the amazing tenacity of work by man ray. a contributor (though informally) to both the dada and surrealist movements, we can see in his work exhibited in “of the refrain” a manifestation of his ultimate identity as a painter. advertising and portraiture would never be the same after him. like abbott, the realm of cultural ferment took its place in front of his camera. no less than the personages of james joyce, gertrude stein, jean cocteau, and antonin artaud sat before him.
dance is a recurring motif in “of the refrain” and pieces representing this medium by barbara morgan, lotte jacobi, ellen auerbach capture the revolution in movement. bodies in motion can be barely contained in the images of these “saboteurs.” we can feel the leaping and fragmentation. the little-known black mountain artist hazel larsen archer in her work “merce cunningham” (1948) gives us a portal to this innovation. in a similar vein, the music captured in their work is avant-garde, jagged, and edgy.
considering explosive milieu in which they worked—with booming intellectual productivity in the fields of writing, art, architecture, music, dance, drama, and the new medium of motion pictures—the confidence, tight framing, and precise compositions found in “of the refrain” invoke these currents. this installation at robert mann gallery captures the erasing of boundaries between studio and camera and the resultant opening to modernity’s convergent forces.
of the refrain
through august 22, 2008
robert mann gallery
210 11th avenue, nyc 10001
Friday, August 08, 2008
[“sizzling habitats” by zigi ben-chaim (2007), wire mesh, canvas, paper, alkyd paint, hooks on aluminum. “salt lines ii” by reena saini kallet (2007), acrylic and cardboard in six frames. “world 17,” by ruud van empel (2006), cibachrome, dibond, plexiglass.]
questioning idealized and commercialized body images, stux’s group exhibition “from head to toe” connects works focusing on –or highlighting—various appendages of the human body. in the way of a medical laboratory, the installation’s very sequencing allows the curators to play the role of dr. frankenstein. by using new media technologies, many of the featured artists have found a vernacular to echo both modern genetics and surrealism’s uncanny effects.
like his other works, zigi ben-chaim’s “sizzling habitats” integrates urban elements with those from his native iraq and israel to create multilayered universes within a universe. these awesome and highly textured sculptural paintings speak of existence and survival amid precarious situations. use of grids and cutouts in his works integrate personal narrative with his complicated cultural exposure. creator of the outdoor installation “splendid step” in new york’s hammarskjöld plaza, ben-chaim’s iconography references our civilization’s lurking dangers and examines our relationships to the larger human experience.
reena saini kallet, whose work simultaneously draws from the disciplines of painting, sculpture, and photography, has depicted the body’s sensory organs in “saltlines ii.” these organs are represented in stylized spillage (as though they were secretions of body fluids)—the forms incorporated into demons sourced from the razmnama or book of wars, which is the persian translation of the sanskrit epic mahabharata. the organs eject hatred and violence in the form of tiny parasites.
the real and imaginary and the attainable and elusive (if not downright impossible) have coalesced in ruud van empel’s “world 17.” seemingly lost characters inhabit its high gloss and richly saturated photographs. comprised of hundreds of individual photographs taken by van empel, these images have been digitally compiled to produce a perspective impossible to capture in routine film exposures.
what is the reality of our self-representation? do our idealized images conform to an “inner truth” or carefully align with contrived falsehoods the media has fabricated for commercial purposes? curators of “from head to toe” have sought to create a golem via the juxtaposition of the installation’s individual works. with this culmination of works in hybrid media, the participating artists have challenged social and cultural assumptions on how we see ourselves and offered possible alternatives to our sometimes macabre and grotesque self-image tug of war in which we become our own worst enemies
from head to toe through august 14, 2008 stux gallery 530 west 25th street, nyc 10001 212.352.1600 www.stuxgallery.com